Deliver-E: Development of Smart Modular Swappable Battery Packs for Commercial Urban Electric Scooters | | Rijksdienst

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Deliver-E: Development of Smart Modular Swappable Battery Packs for Commercial Urban Electric Scooters

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Electrification of the contemporary forms of mobility will be one of the key ways to ensure fewer emissions in the future. Just in The Netherlands, there are 1,205,827 scooters, which is a significant proportion of the traffic. Of particular importance is often the proximity of these vehicles to cyclists and pedestrians, as well as disproportionate noise and pollution.

Scooters are mainly used for transporting a single person or goods over short distances, which makes them very suitable for being replaced by their electric counterparts. However, the main issue is the amount of energy that can be stored inside a battery, compared to a gasoline tank. The energy density of batteries is lower, it takes longer to recharge, and the lifecycle of batteries is shorter. It has been indicated that electrification of scooters is too expensive, and therefore less viable than electrification of bikes.
Some of the existing present-day electric scooters use lithium-ion batteries, but since there are different types of batteries with better performance, consisting of different chemistry such, it is worthwhile to consider manufacturing scooter batteries from these other types of cells.
With the current development rate of batteries the prices will drop further, while the performance of cells will only increase. These developments will make it possible to produce battery packs at lower costs, ensuring the same performance.
Therefore designing and modelling a scooter battery pack with contemporary existing technologies will give a view on what the present-day technology is able to offer, combined with smart integrated monitoring and swapping functionality.


The recent improvements on electric vehicles enable the use of electric scooters (e-scooters) as an alternative for delivering products, while stopping gas emissions and significantly reducing the emitted noise. However, e-scooters have an operational range shorter than conventional scooters. Therefore, the e-scooter user is forced to charge the battery between deliveries, which can compromise the quality of the service due to the extended charging times of batteries. Swapping the depleted battery for a fully charged one is an alternative that allows the use of e-scooters in delivery systems with a minimal impact on the quality of service.

Doel van het project

This DKTI project will focus on the design and implementation of a smart modular swappable batterypack for e-scooters. The project activities range from requirements definition from the end user perspective, research and development of a swappable battery module, and field tests of delivery e-scooters with the developed swappable battery pack. Of particular focus will be the smart ICT systems enabling optimised asset management of the packs.

Locatie(s) waar het project uitgevoerd wordt:

  • Automotive Campus Helmond
  • Rotterdam


  • TNO (penvoerder)
    Modelling and Algorithms
    Energy planning
  • Dominos Netherlands BV
    Groot Bedrijf
    Business Validations
    Launching customer
    Telematics specifications
  • Dominos Pizza Zwijndrecht BV
    Klein Bedrijf
    End User, Field Trialling
  • GreenMo Services BV
    Klein Bedrijf
    e-Scooter rental
    Vehicle specifications
    Vehicle software architecture
    Vehicle platform engineering
  • Spike Technologies BV
    Klein Bedrijf
    Battery Prototype
    Scale-up for manufacturing
  • FIER Automotive
    Klein Bedrijf
    Business Modelling


DELIVER-E will generate packs of batteries for optimised charge and asset management for electric scooters within a commercial environment. Moreover, the project will deliver:

  • A functioning prototype smart modular battery pack, demonstrated within a vehicle in a live operational environment
  • Business model assessment on the management and ownership of battery models and vehicles within the 2-wheeler vehicle classification
  • Smart algorithms able to monitor and remotely diagnose information critical to the business model
  • Finally, key results, both commercial and on a research-basis will be shared via workshops and conferences. The project will actively highlight the innovation potential from a DKTI-funded project, as well as report back to RVO on successful outcomes

Bijdrage doelstellingen DKTI Transport

The following steps are considered within the project:

  1. Dominos Requirements: collecting the requirements from the end user in terms of range, operability, and robustness.
  2. TNO Technical specifications the requirements are translated into technical specifications of a swappable battery pack, using measurements, models and optimization of current delivery systems.
  3. Spike Design and Development: the technical specifications are then used to design and develop the battery for e-scooters.
  4. GreenMo Functional Verification: The developed battery is fitted into a e-scooter powertrain where a functional verification is carried out.
  5. Dominos Validation and Field Trial: the e-scooter is then tested with field operations by the end user.
  6. FIER Assessment and Business Case: the applicability of the developed product is evaluated from a business perspective in the scope of deliveries.

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